Vitamin E, also known as vitamin E, also known as anti-infertility vitamin, tocopherol or pregnancy-producing phenol (hereinafter abbreviated as VE), is a fat-soluble vitamin. VE is combined with fatty acids in the mucosal cells of the small intestine, transported through the lymph, and is taken up and stored by the liver. When the body needs it, it is released from the liver to supply tissues and organs. Fecal VE is the excretion channel.
The function of VE:
1. VE is an antioxidant that can prevent oxidation of easy oxides (VA, animal fat, unsaturated fatty acids) in feed and slow down the oxidation process of chyme that enters the digestive tract. The antioxidant effect in the process of animal endogenous metabolism is first to inhibit the production of toxic lipid peroxides, reduce the production of peroxides, stop the peroxidative degradation of body fat, stabilize unsaturated fatty acids, and then extend fat The storage time of the feed.
2. VE is an antioxidant in the animal body. It works in coordination with selenium to prevent the unsaturated fatty acids in cells and cell membranes from being oxidized and destroyed, thereby protecting the integrity of cell membranes, preventing liver tissue necrosis and muscle damage, and maintaining the stability and stability of red blood cells. The integrity of capillaries has a significant effect on improving the quality of egg cells.
3. VE stimulates the anterior pituitary gland, promotes the secretion of sex hormones, increases sperm motility and quantity; increases the concentration of estrogen and improves fertility. It is conducive to conception and implantation of fertilized eggs, prevents miscarriage, and improves the reproductive function of animals.
4. VE has the function of progesterone, has a good anti-fetal effect in the early pregnancy, and can prevent miscarriage.
5. Regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates and creatine, and improve the utilization of sugar and protein. Increase the metabolism of nucleic acid, promote protein synthesis, increase body function and reproductive function;
6. High-dose VE stimulates the synthesis of coenzyme Q, promotes the production of immune proteins, improves disease resistance, and enhances anti-stress effects.
7. Play an anti-toxic effect in the process of cell metabolism.
8. According to reports, the activity of certain enzymes can be preserved and the digestibility of feed can be improved; injection of VE can promote milk secretion.
1. The lack of VE in breeders mainly manifests as pathological changes of reproductive organs and disorders of reproductive function. The size of the testis of the males becomes smaller and the testis atrophy occurs; the epithelial cells are degenerated, the fine ducts atrophy, and the semen production is impaired; the females are delayed in estrus, and the mismatch rate increases. The most obvious manifestations are embryo absorption, abortion, stillbirth, and dry milk. , The mother animal even loses normal fertility.
2. Lack of VE during pregnancy and abnormal gestation is the main cause of premature delivery. Newborn babies are sluggish and have weak vitality. Some babies will not suck milk and die due to exhaustion. In dead newborn animals, a gelatinous brown exudate can often be observed under the skin.
3. Young animals in the growing period are damaged by lack of muscle due to VE. The clinical manifestations are muscular dystrophy, growth arrest, and sudden heart failure. The young animals have softening of the brain tissue and motor nerve center disorders. In severe cases, they cannot stand.
4. Long-term lack of VE leads to neuropathy and subcutaneous edema. Mink and fox can cause liver necrosis, anemia and other symptoms.
Fake estrus occurs in fur animals, that is, the estrus behavior is not synchronized with the development of sexual organs, and breeding failure occurs (more attention should be paid to artificial insemination, and microscopic examination must be performed before insemination); long-term (6 months) high-dose (400mg/day) feeding of VE , Has an adverse effect on reproductive function, and has sexual dysfunction; NRC (1987) shows that the tolerance of rats to VE is about 75IU/kg body weight per day. Long-term feeding of 400-800mg/day can cause adverse reactions such as vomiting, diarrhea, and breast enlargement.
Fur animals cannot synthesize VE and can only rely on external sources to meet their needs.
The content of VE in animal feed is very small, and only a certain amount of VE is contained in the colostrum and egg yolk of milk. Plant feed, vegetable oil, and yeast contain more content. Among them, corn seeds contain 20mg/kg and soybeans contain 40mg/kg, but natural VE is very unstable and sensitive to oxygen. Oxidation and oil refining can quickly destroy VE, heat, Wetness, rancidity and trace elements can accelerate the oxidation of VE. To ensure the required amount of VE in animal diets, synthetic VE must be added.
The VE requirement of fur animals is generally 3-4 mg/kg body weight. Generally, mink needs 2.5-5 mg per day and night, fox 5-20 mg, and raccoon dog 5 mg. The exact amount of VE required depends on the physiological stage of the animal, the composition of the diet, the level of selenium and unsaturated fatty acids in the diet, and whether other antioxidants are added or not. When the animal is under stress, VE needs to be added (at the same time, VC is more effective, and VC and VE have a synergistic effect).